ICT Policy in India: Programs and Implementation Challenges

A policy is defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific goals within a society” (WHO)[1], while implementation is viewed as a process, an output or outcome[2]. The core elements of a policy are as follows.

(i) It is a statement in writing and is binding by law (ii) It is data and context driven (iii) It is legally feasible (iv) Its implementation is clear (v) It accounts for the marginalized, and (vi) It is financially sustainable (National Institute of Health and US Department of Health and Human Services). A policy of a country guides choices about which technologies to develop and use.

The need for ICT policy for schools in India

While broadcasting technologies like telephones, television and radio have been used as Information Communication and Technology (ICT) tools, in the past; mobile phone and computers have emerged as effective tools in the recent years. In India, smart phones have become a part of everyday life. Because of newer ICT options, asynchronous learning (time lag between delivery of instruction and reception by learners) has become possible.

Policies set priority for local action. The National Policy on Information and Communication Technology in School Education, 2012[3], emphasises use of ICT to improve quality education, though its use in education has been debated for long. About 72.2% of India’s population is rural [Census 2011] and access to computer has been questioned. Lack of access to good quality computers and equipped computer labs is taking away opportunities from students in rural India. This gap has been noticed and therefore, the National Policy on ICT in School Education, 2012 has been launched as a step towards strengthening ICT as a pedagogy of learning.

The ICT Policy for schools – basis for sharper programs

Many ICT programs have been implemented in Bihar to help expand access to education, resources, and teachers to students. Some new initiatives have been in limelight recently, e.g., ICT@School scheme launched in 2008 in 400 government aided secondary and senior secondary schools, though the scheme has been under radar for lack of its proper implementation and evaluation.[4]

How TTB is contributing to learner centered learning

A cutting edge and learner centered design offered by Turn the Bus (Education NGO) provides access to government course related online video lessons to students of class XII in Bihar. It is a tool that is transforming learning environment into one that is learner centered. The evaluation of this programme is underway, and many programme and policy makers are looking up for learning from it.


[1] WHO, Health System Governance,

[2] Policy implementation: some aspects and issues, Journal of community positive practices, 2016


[4] Education Quest: An Int. J. of Education and Applied Social Science: Volume 9, No. 2, pp. 161-167, August 2018

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